Long range shooting is a collective term for shooting disciplines where the shooter has to engage targets at such long distances that he has to calculate ballistics, especially in regards to wind. While shooting at shorter or "regular" ranges, one usually has to adjust the sights only in regards to gravity (which is constant) but, when the range is extended, wind drift will be the first factor affecting precision to the extent that it must be taken into account. Some would argue that long range shooting starts where assessment of wind, distance, and various atmospheric conditions are equally important for the results as pure shooting skills - meaning that even if one conducts a technically perfect shot, the shooter will miss the target because of incorrect calculations, or forgetting to take some element into consideration. It is widely accepted within interdisciplinary circles that long range means the target is more than 600 yards or meters away, while extreme long range is generally accepted as the target distance is more than 1000 yards or meters away from the shooter.
There are several competitive match circuits that typically consist of targets at long range. Bench rest is often 600 and 1000 yard events, F Class is typically the same with 600 and 1000 yard matches in the Midwest US. A growing form of interdisciplinary shooting, becoming known as Practical Precision, places targets at virtually any distance from 200-2000 yards/ meters and the scoring is hit/ miss on steel targets of various sizes and from various positions (standing, kneeling, prone) This type of match is quickly becoming more popular than F Class.
You don’t need anything more than a capable rifle, but if you want to have a good experience there are a few that help the beginner.
Of coarse the first thing you need is a capable rifle. Let’s say one that can consistently shoot upder 1 MOA.
A good rifle needs a good scope. Typically we are looking at one that has open easy to adjust turrets and a zero stop. Most prefer a first focal plane one also.
A bipod is probably the only other item that i think is required.
There are several different bag manufacturers out there in the market. A bag is good to use on the rear of the rifle and help stabilize your “platform”. I have several from WieBad and like them.
There are many tools available, from the very expensive to free on the iPhone/Android platform. Grab one that is free and see how it works...
As we are shooting at targets from 100 yards to 1,200+ yards consistent ammo becomes a must and why most hand load for this sport. That is not to say that you cannot use ammo purchased in a store, just don’t buy the cheapest you can find and expect consistency out of it!